World Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
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Kasturi Krishna Rande, *Pooja Narendra Bagul and Ashok Jetaram Choudhary


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world. Early fever, cough (dryness) and fatigue were considered common and most important symptoms of coronavirus-2 infection. However, as the pandemic spread, olfactory and taste dysfunction emerged as a new symptom of COVID-19. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the olfactory and gustatory area, and the mechanisms affected by COVID-19 that cause olfactory and taste loss i.e. anosmia and ageusia, respectively. The current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms infers ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) and TMPRSS2 (encoded serine protease) expression patterns. Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 indicates that olfactory epithelium-supported cells may be the first target for SARS-CoV-2. Direct attack of SARS-CoV-2 on the tongue results in altered stem cell characteristics due to local inflammatory processes, ultimately altering taste. ACE2 is widespread in oral mucosal epithelial cells and, when destroyed, causes ageusia in the early stages of COVID-19. The early prognosis of COVID-19 through olfactory and taste dysfunction can be concluded.

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