World Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
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Adugna Gindaba and M. Sadre Alam Fakhri*


Mutualisms between plants and their floral visitors sustain not only plant diversity, but also the diversity of an estimated 350, 000 animal species, mainly various insects, birds and mammals. Wild bees represent the most important group of pollinator insects because they play a key role in agriculture, pollinating almost all crop varieties. However, they are increasingly at risk of local and even global extinction. Climate change and habitat loss are affecting all major aspects of the biology of insects that pollinate plants in both natural and agricultural communities. Understanding network structure and its underlying causes are essential parts of any study of biodiversity and its responses to disturbances, yet it is a conceptual and methodological challenge to address these problems in highly diversified communities with thousands of interactions. Plant–pollinator communities are typically composed of a high number of plant species and an even greater number of pollinator species.

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