World Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
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Abstract

REVIEW ON HISTORY AND EVIDENCE OF FRUIT BATS AS THE NATURAL RESERVOIR FOR EBOLA VIRUSES

Addisu Demeke, Yibrah Tekle* and Hordoffa Qamar

ABSTRACT

The Ebola viruses are negative sense RNA genome they cause sporadic outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and its genus has five species: Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), Reston Ebola virus (REBOV), Sudan Ebola virus (SEBOV), Bundibugyo Ebola virus (BDBV) and Cote d’Ivoire Ebola virus (CIEBOV).With the exception of REBOV they all cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high case fatality rates, in Africa 40-90% often linked to exposure to wild animal tissues during butchering. Currently, there is no approved treatment or vaccination available due to their high lethality. Ebola virus introduction into human population resulted from through single or multiple introductions from a zoonotic source into the human population then followed by human-to-human. The natural reservoirs of Ebola viruses is currently unknown, but there is some evidences that fruit bats may play a key role because they have close genetic relation with Marburg virus in which a fruit bat has been identified. There is some evidence that transmission might occur when bats give birth. Pregnant fruit bats are also more likely to be seropositive than non pregnant females. Ebola virus would not be expected to cause lethal disease in its natural reservoir. The symptoms progress over the time and the patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. Fatal cases tend to develop early clinical signs during the infection and death often occurs between the sixth and sixteen days of illness. Currently, the standard treatment consists of supportive therapy, including maintenance of blood volume and electrolyte balance, as well as analgesics and standard nursing care. Finally, to prevent infection from animals all sick and dead wild animals should be avoided, good personal hygiene should be used when handling and preparing meat and the meat should be thoroughly cooked and also healthcare workers should use the personal protective equipment currently recommended by experts to prevent exposure to blood and body fluids.

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