World Journal of
Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
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Nidhi Pal, Varun Goel, Ajay Kumar Sahni, Manish Singh, Harmesh Manocha and Anju Rani*


Bacteria or fungal secondary infection might be a key element that promoted severe disease and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVID-19 patients with suspected secondary infections were included in the study and lower respiratory tract samples, blood, catheters and urine samples were collected according to clinical necessity and culture were performed. Automated blood culture and bacterial identification methods were conducted. For fungus, KOH mount and fungal culture were performed. Results: A total of 227 COVID-19 positive patients were included, 49 (21.58%) had secondary infections. From respiratory, blood and urine samples, 55.5%, 9% and 25% of microorganisms were isolated respectively. Respiratory samples comprise Candida albicans (25%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (16.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli (12.5% each), mucor (8.3%), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp., and Cryptococcus laurenti (4.2% each). From blood, Acinetobacter baumannii (38.4%) were isolated, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hominis, CONS, Enterococcus faecalis (7.6% each). In urinary secondary infections, E. coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans (16.6% each), Enterococcus faecium and Cryptococcus laurenti (8.3% each) were isolated. The majority of isolated bacteria were extreme drug resistant. Conclusion: A high rate of secondary infections with resistant pathogens in COVID-19 patients highlights the importance of regular monitoring and management including antimicrobial stewardship programs based on culture reports.

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